The Christchurch Earthquake Sequence of 2010-2011 caused extreme and widespread damage to the 3 waters pipe network of Christchurch. Most of this damage was caused by liquefaction and lateral spreading. Researchers and practitioners have learnt many lessons in assessing liquefaction damage from these experiences. This report develops tools to assess the potential for pipeline damage based on correlations with liquefaction-induced ground movement and CPT-based liquefaction metrics. The correlations can be used for pre-event estimates as well as post-event rapid triage of pipe damage. Key inputs to the assessment are pre and post-event LiDAR surveys; satellite imagery; CPT-based assessments of liquefaction vulnerability and Peak Ground Velocity (PGV).
The numerical model proposed for simulation of out-of-plane instability in rectangular walls is further examined in this paper by predicting the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of a singly reinforced wall specimen that was tested in Switzerland (EPFL). The model predictions were compared with the experimental measurements and the capability of the model to capture this mode of failure was verified by the researchers at EPFL.
This paper elaborates on the experimental results of three rectangular wall specimens that were designed according to the New Zealand concrete design standard and were tested under in-plane cyclic loading. The possible failure modes of the New Zealand modern ductile walls and the adequacy of the wall design provisions are discussed in light of the experimental observations.
This paper describes a modeling approach that can be used to predict the out-of-plane instability of rectangular walls under in-plane cyclic loading and presents the in-plane and out-of-plane response simulation for several singly-reinforced and doubly-reinforced wall specimens tested in the literature.
This paper discusses the sequence of events that result in formation of out-of-plane deformation and subsequent instability in rectangular walls under in-plane loading. The experimental observations of a wall specimen that failed in pure out-of-plane instability are used for this purpose. The wall was designed according to the New Zealand concrete design standard and the potential changes to the wall design section of this standard to prevent this mode of failure are discussed in detail in light of the experimental observations and analytical predictions.
This paper describes the strengths and limitations of a modeling approach that can be used for numerical simulation of different failure modes of reinforced concrete structural walls. Experimental results of several wall specimens that exhibited various failure modes are used for parametric evaluation of the modeling approach.